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- There are many cases in which there is no English equivalent for an Arabic word or that the Arabic word in a certain context contains multiple (or Qur’ānic/idiomatic) references that the English equivalent may not convey. For example, “the preacher says ‘I advise you to fear God’ (taqwā Allāh), or “the author exclaims ‘twisting of your nose’ (raghman li anfik) or “the author refers to ‘the people of the cave’ (aṣḥāb al-kahf)” or “it is through the proclamation that ‘there is no God but Him (lā ilāha illā hū)”. In these sentences it was necessary to include the Arabic words to emphasize the Qur’ānic reference.
- In these cases, my system was to use the translation of the words or phrases in the text and then in parenthesis write the Arabic word. As always it is necessary to be consistent (The reason I explicitly mention this point is that in my thesis I juggled between using transliterated Arabic in the text and then the translation in parenthesis and vice versa. The consequence was that in the final revision process I had to painstakingly go through the thesis making things consistent.)